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Migratory & Grassland Birds

The Northern Great Plains provide invaluable habitat for native and migrating birds, including most of North America’s imperiled grassland bird species.

In riparian corridors, sagebrush and the grasses themselves, hundreds of species of birds make their permanent homes or land for a short time during their annual migrations. With more than 40% of North America’s declining bird populations dependent on grassland habitat, American Prairie provides a unique resource for the ongoing preservation of avian diversity in the United States.


American avocet photographed by Dennis Lingohr

American Prairie is home to an extraordinary diversity of grassland birds. With many migratory species, the birds you see during your trip depend on the season. 



2005, 2009 and 2013:  Species Count & Distribution Surveys

A study funded by World Wildlife Fund and conducted by Wild Things Unlimited surveyed the number of different species types, the number of individuals within each species and species distribution throughout the area’s grasslands, sagebrush communities, prairie dog towns and wetlands in 2005, 2009, and 2013.  A total of 159 species were observed on American Prairie lands during 2013 (up from 132 in 2009), including 14 species not seen in previous years.  Of the total 159 species:

  • 53 were water birds (ducks, geese, grebes, pelican, cormorant, herons, rails, cranes, shorebirds, gulls and terns),
  • 4 were upland game birds,
  • 15 were raptors (hawks, eagles, falcons and owls), four were upland game birds (grouse, pheasant and partridge) and
  • 87 were songbirds.

Portions of surrounding South Phillips County were also surveyed in both years.  Twenty-seven bird species observed in South Phillips County and 22 seen on American Prairie are listed as Species Of Concern by the State of Montana. Read more: Bird Surveys Report (2009)


2010: Bird Populations and Grassland Grazing Survey

In 2010, researchers with the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) concluded a survey of bird populations in relation to grassland grazing on American Prairie. The survey examined the relationship between bird populations dependent on tall or short grass habitat and the intensity of wild and domestic grazing in the region. The researchers identified the presence of longspurs and grasshopper sparrows as strong indicators of thriving short grass habitat, with Sprague’s pipits and Baird’s sparrows indicating a healthy tall grass habitat and the presence of Brewer’s sparrows and sage grouse indicating areas with adequate sagebrush. Read more: WCS Birds and Grazing Report (2009)


2016: Breeding Bird Surveys

Starting in Spring 2016, scientists with Clemson University will begin breeding bird surveys on American Prairie lands.